domingo, 21 de novembro de 2010
Not knowing how to survive in the wilderness and having to face an extremely cold winter, the Pilgrim colony lost about half of its members.
But new hope arose in the summer of 1621. The Indians had taught the Pilgrims how to hunt, fish and grow food; and for the first time there would be a good corn harvest. Thus, in early autumn, Governor William Brandford arranged a harvest festival to give thanks to God for the progress the colony had made. The first Thanksgiving Days in New England were, therefore, harvest festivals, or days for thanking God for plentiful crops.
Nowadays Thanksgiving is an annual legal holiday, celebrated on the fourth Thursday in November. It is usually a family day, celebrated with big dinners which include roast turkey and pumpkin pie. In fact, going home for Thanksgiving is a national custom. Many Americans travel long distances to spend the holiday at home.
Remember that "Thanksgiving Day" will be celebrated next Thursday - November 25 th.
"HAVE A WONDERFUL THANKSGIVING DAY!"
sexta-feira, 19 de novembro de 2010
- That´s Ivete Sangalo. She´s a singer and she´s from Bahia.
- Cool! And who´s he?
- He´s Paulo Coelho, a writer. He´s famous all around the world!
- That´s interesting! And who´s she?
- Come on, Greg, don´t you know anybody? That´s Gisele Bundchen!
- Awesome! And who are they?
- They are Brazilian beach volleyball players and they are world champions!
- That´s amazing!
* Ask your students to bring pictures of famous people and help them write about some of them.
- Oh, hi Bob! Hi Lisa! Good to see you.
- It´s really hot today, isn´t it? How about a soda?
- A soda? No, thanks! Sodas have no fruit, no vitamins, no nutrients, nothing.
Just lots of sugar and salt! That´s why they´re so refreshing.
- I agree. Let´s have some fruit juice, then. We´re in Brazil, remember?
- Ok, you win. A mango juice for me, please.
- I´ll have an orange and acerola juice. It´s rich in vitamin C and it´s delicious!
- Great idea. Make it two, please. No mango, please!
- Oh, yes, please. "vou querer"! Some green coconut water. Lovely!
- A green coconut? But aren´t coconuts brown?
domingo, 10 de outubro de 2010
domingo, 12 de setembro de 2010
sexta-feira, 10 de setembro de 2010
American English is a language of many dialects. A dialect is a regional variety of a language whose pronunciation, grammar or vocabulary differs from other varieties. Broadly speaking, American English consists of two basic dialect groups: Northern and Southern dialects. Within these two main groups, we can find many other subdialects or either an urban or a rural variety.
If we were to listen carefully, for example, to the way native Texans speak, we´d notice that, for the most part, their pronunciation tends to be similar. We´d probably also notice that a typical Texas dialect is characterized by a song-like intonation, absent in Nothern dialects, is characteristic of other Southern dialects as well.
A comparison between a typical Texas accent and one from new York City, would give us a good idea of two different dialects. Although a Texan and a new Yorker speak the same language and can understand each other with relative ease, their accents immediately make it clear they´re from different parts of the United States.
Whereas New York is the apotheosis of the bustling, fast-paced metropolis, Texas is a state with a rural image: a land of big ranches, cattle and oil wells. These contrasting realities are mirroredmin the regional expressions and slang of both the Texan and New York dialects.
Ethnic groups also have their own dialects. Let´s imagine we were traveling throughout the Southwestern states of New Mexico, Arizona and California. After listening to the English spoken by Mexican-Americans living in those places, we´d notice that many of them have a unique pronunciation and intonation. We´d also notice many of them do some type of code-switching between Spanish and English.
The Mexican-American dialect reflects the everyday reality of its speakers, many of whom are bilingual or have some proficiency in Spanish. In cities like Los Angeles (California), Phoenix (arizona) or Santa Fe (New Mexico), one finds large Hispanic neighborhoods (or "bairros", as they´re called even in English) and communities in wich both Spanish and English are used in all aspects of everyday life.
We must keep in mind that the dialect of English among Mexican-Americans is by no means uniform. The fact that a speaker belongs to a particular ethnic group does not mean that she\he necessarily speaks the dominant dialect group. Factors such as a speaker´s socioeconomic status, age or the place s\he was brought up all contribute to the variety of speech patterns found amog individuals from all social and ethnic groups.
However, in close-knit hispanic communities, we´d find that the dialect of English tends to be much more homogeneous. That´s because many of its speakers share similar backgrounds and face the same everyday realities of life in the barrio.
Let´s now consider the types of English spoken by America´s largest ethnic group, the Afro-Americans. The perceptive student can undoubtely recognize certain pronunciations and intonations as being typical of afro-American speakers. For example, that the same student would recognize the accents of famous singers like Ella Fitsgerald and Billie Holiday or actors like Bill Cosby or Eddie Murphy as unmistakably Afro-American.
There exists, however, much variety in the speech patteerns of afro-Americans. Although Afro-Americans have traditionally been identified with the South, which was the area where slavery was most heavily concentrated, today they inhabit all parts of the United States.
Although many Afro-Americans speak Standard English, many also speak only Black english. There are also other Afro-Americans who are able to code-switch from Standard English to Black English.
Linguists have traditionally described Black English as a deviation of English. Yet, that theory is unsatisfactory because it implies Black English is in some way inferior. Perhaps it would be more accurate to think of Black english as simply American English that has been (and is being) transformed and modified by its speakers to reflect their everyday reality and cultural identity.
For some people, Black English is by no means a uniform dialect. Different geegraphical areas have different varieties of Black english. You would undoubtedly find that out by traveling throughout the U.S. and listening to Afro-Americans. However , if a trip to the States weren´t possible, you could still hear varieties of Black english in films.
Rather than try and provide you an exhaustive inventory of either the typical grammatical constructions or vocabulary of Black english and to show how it is a unique phenomenon in American English.
As we mentioned earlier, Black English has a unique vocabulary. It also has a number of peculiar grammatical constructions, especially the way the verb TO BE is used.
For example, in Black English, the verb TO BE is often deleted :
a. We goin´(going) fisnhin´(fishing) tomorrow.
b. You in hot water, dude.
The use of IS for all persons, singular and plural, as in the sentence below, is also quite common in Black English:
I\you\she\he\it\we\they is hungry.
In Black English, it is common to susbstitute BE for all persons, singular and plural, in sentences in which that verb would normally be conjugated:
a. I\you\she\he\it\we\they be hungy.
b. We be leavin´(leaving) now.
c. They be buyin´(buying) the tickets.
And as you might have already deduced, WAenseS would substitute in all persons, singular and plural, the conjugated verb TO BE in the past tense:
a. Was they gonna (going to) buy the whiskey?
b.You was supposed to take out the gabarge.
c.We was watchin´(watching) TV when it happenned.
Colloquial speech tranformations are also quite characteristics of Blach english. For example, the chopping off of the final G of an -ing form as in the sentences above.
segunda-feira, 23 de agosto de 2010
quinta-feira, 29 de julho de 2010
a) brother - sister - father - grandfather
b) my - your - their - he
c) mother - friend - classmate - teacher
d) hamburger - milk shake - hot dog - pizza
e) first name - full name - phone number - last name
f) rap - pop - samba - play
1. Soletre o nome Kimberley sem nenhuma pausa entre as letras.
Agora, soletre-o com pausas nos pontos indicados : Kim-ber-ley.
De que jeito é mais fácil soletrar? e para entender?
2. Experimente o mesmo com seu nome ou um número de telefone;
5559456 e 555-94-56.
a) Maria is my friend.
She is my friend.
b) Sansão is from Brazil.
c) Sandy and Junior are from Campinas.
d) Anita and I are classmates.
e) You and Pedro are on the soccer team.
2) Read the sentences. Then choose the correct alternatives and complete them.
a) Guga isn´t (´s/isn´t) from Paraná.
He ----------- (is/are) from Santa Catarina.
b) Anita and Marta ---------- (is/are) on the basketball team.
c) I ---------- (´m/´re) from Brasília.
It --------- (´s/´re) the capital of Brazil.
d) Carlos and I --------- (am not/ aren´t) in Book 2.
We --------- (´s/´re) in Book 1.
Complete the series with the missing numbers.
one, --------------, --------------, four, ---------------, six, seven, ------------, -------,ten.
eleven, twelve, -------------, -----------------, fifteen, sixteen, -------------, eighteen, nineteen, --------------.
I´m Carol Williams. I´m 12 years old and I study at the New York Public School. I have many friends there.
I´m from New York City. It´s in the United States. Look at the picture. It´s the Statue of Liberty. It´s a famous tourist attraction in New York.
Write to me.
Now, complete the information about Carol.
Birth place: -------------------------------------
Explorem o mundo dos esportes em grupos de 4-6 alunos.
1. Separem duas folhas de sulfite. Escrevam os seguintes títulos em cada uma: Team sports e Individual sports.
2. Escolham três esportes para cada categoria. Façam desenhos ou colem imagens dos esportes escolhidos.
3. Escrevam, embaixo de cada ilustração, o nome do esporte em inglês.
4. Exponham seus trabalhos na sala de aula. Se quiserem, discutam suas preferências por cada tipo de esporte.
- Se não tiverem certeza da categoria a que pertence determinado esporte, perguntem ao professor de Educação Física.
- Estes sites podem ajudar no projeto: www.olympic.org/uk/sports/index.asp e www.worldgames-iwga.org.
2. Expresse o que você sente através da linguagem não-verbal - por exemplo, desenho, pintura, colagem, grafismo, fotografia etc.
3. Quando terminar, escreva o título de sua obra utilizando o seguinte título "FEELING ------------- IN THE ------------." Preencha a primeira lacuna com um emotion ou smiley, e a segunda com o período do dia escolhido. Não se esqueça de assinar!
4. A classe expõe suas obras e convida outros alunos e professores para ver a exposição.
Hi, How are you?
Look at the pictures of my friends and classmates.
This is Susy. She´s my classmate and she´s my friend too.
These are my friends. Amy and Sylvia. They´re very nice.
This is Josh. He´s my best friend.
Please, send me some pictures of your friends in Brazil.
Discuss with your classmates.
a) Como as pessoas costumavam se corresponder antes da Internet? E agora?
b) Apesar de toda tecnologia, há muitas pessoas que preferem escrever cartas ou postais a usar o computador. O que você prefere? Por quê?
Answer Robert´s letter. Include photos and drawings.
Hi! How are you?
Look at the pictures of my friends and classmates.
quinta-feira, 8 de julho de 2010
Our towns, cities, parks, and green spaces need help just like people and animals do.
Without the efforts of volunteers who care about the communities we live in, pollution and other problems could soon be out of control. Everyone wants to live in a clean.safe, and beautiful area, and volunteers help make sure we do.
Here's how you can lend a hand:
Recycling means taking materials like glass, paper, metal and plastic, and helping to turn them into new products...
Planting trees and other greenery is more important than you might think!...
Picking up litter makes a better, more beautiful environment for everyone, and gives people a reason to be proud of their community.
Available at: http;//pbskids.org/itsmylife/emotions/volunteering/article7.html
FOOD FOR THOUGHT
Você já pensou que...
-basta um pedaço de papel jogado no chão para um lugar começar a ficar sujo?
-Seu cãozinho pode ficar doente por comer um pedaço de um snaduíche estragado que alguém jogou no chão?
-Sujeira atrai ratos e insetos?
Discuta com seu colegas:
-O que você costuma ver no chão: chiclete, papel, pontas de cigarro, comida etc?
-Que riscos o lixo acarreta para a população? E para os animais?
E para a natureza?
-Por que as pessoas jogam lixo no chão?
-O que podemos fazer para provocar mudanças na atitude das pessoas com relação a essa questão?
Keep in mind: "The time is always right to do what is right."
Martin Luther King Jr.
The first streets in the United States were named for important places or landmarks in the city, like Church, Park, Market or for topographic features, such as Hill, Lake, River, Bay, etc. Often, important streets were called Main or King, or carried the names of American heroes and presedents, e.g. Washington and Jefferson.
New York and other planned cities have numbered streets. The streets running in the north-south direction are avenues; the ones running east-west are called streets.
Also, to help find adresses, cities are sometimes divide int four parts: east/west by an avenue, and north/south by a street. For example, the island of Manhattan in new York City is divided into east/west by Fifth Avenue. So, the address 205 West 46th Street is west of Fifth Avenue, while 295 East 46th Street is east of the same avenue.
Adapte from Brief History of Street Naming in North America, by Lawence Kestenbaum.
Write the questions and answers.
Model: you/play basketball
Can you play basketball?
Yes, I can./No, I can't.
a) Rita/ ride a bike.
b) Peter/make a kite
c) Marta/ski rope
d) Rita and Vicky/fly a kite
e) you/play baseball
Harry Houdini's real name was Ehric Weiss and he as born in Budapest, Hungary, on March 24, 1874. When he was 4 years old, his family moved to the United States. Houdini was a master of illusion and a legendary escape artist who dramatically freed himself from hopes, shackles, and handcuffs. He was married to Wilhelmina Rahner, who, as beatrice Houdini, was his stage assistant. He performed on shows and was also in many motion picture.
Adapted from America's Library, by the Library of Congress,USA.
If you want to learn more about Houdini, visit www.americaslibrary.gov/cgi-bin/page.cgi/aa/entertin/houdini
Using the correct form of the verb to be, complete the facts about Harry Houdini.
Did you know these facts about Houdini?
-Hudini -------- still today one of the ten most recognized celebrity names in the world.
-He -------- also one of the first people to pilot an airplane in Australia.
-Houdini --------- a mvie producer and actor.
-Houdini --------- born in the United States, but he told people that he -------- from Appleton, Wisconsin, USA.
There are three different types of UV radiation - UVA, UVB and UVC - which are classified based on length of their waves.
UVC, wuth the shortest wavelenghts, is completely absorbed by the ozone in the Earth's atmosphere and is therefore of little concern. Both UVA and UVB can break through the ozone layer and reach the ground and are responsible for skin damage and skin cancer. UVA (with the longest wavelenghts) can penetrate deeply and damage the skin's lower layers. UVA is responsible for sunburn, wrinkles, freckles, suntan, outer layer and cause sunburn and skin cancer.
A helpful rule of thumb is: "A (UVA) is for aging, B (UVB) is for burning."
Available at: www.sunsafecolorado.org/school/uvradiation/uv_uv.shtml
The dictionary says that happiness is the state of being happy!
It aloso says that good fortune, feeling content, pleasure or gladness can make a person feel happy.
One thing is for sure and that is that money cannot make a person happy, nor can having all the things that anyone could want.
HAPPINESS IS MORE ABOUT FEELINGS AND INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER PEOLPLE THAN HAVING THINGS.
Building happiness into your life
Some people seem to be born happy. Nothing seems to get them down, they can always see the best of every situation and they seem to smile their way through life...
Some people seem to have everything going for them but still do not seem to be happy.
NO MATTER WAHT KIND OF PERSON YOU ARE, YOU CAN DO SOME THINGS TO BUILD HAPPINESS INTO YOUR LIFE.
...Since New York is made up of all kinds of people, besides different types of food, every year there are many different parades. There are pareades from many different nationalities such as Chinese, Englis, Spanish and Polish. At these parades, you can see the country's culture, dance, music and so much more.
my favorite parade is the Easter Parade. In this parade there are a lot of colorful costumes _ especially the hats. The hats are big and have clolorful flowers on them. There are colorful floats covered with flowers. When you look at these flowers you can see a picture. Yhe parade looks like a village from a cartoon.
Available at: www.kidsthinklink.com/CultureLink/index.htm
Make a page of a travel guide:
-Collect information about a place in your state. Research encyclopedias, travel guides, travel magazines, the Web and talk to people eho know the place well.
-Make a page of a travel guide about the plae. Add photos if possible. Remember to include the sources where you found the information.
-Add suggestions for visitros: a hotel, restaurants, shops and interesting things to do and see in the city.
-Share your work with your classmates.
-Display your pages on a bulletin board and have everyone vote for the best place to visit.
Source:National Geographic. Available at: www.nationalgeographic.com/destinations/New_York_City/
Source: Encyclopedia Britannica.Available at:www.britannica.com/ebc/article-9373410
WEDNESDAY we walk
When it´s fine weather.
THURSDAY we kiss,
FRIDAY we cry,
Seems almost to fly!
But of all the days in the week,
we will call
SUNDAY the rest day, the best day of all.
January is named after the old Roman God Janus. He was a two-faced God with one face looking toward the past and the other toward the future.
February comes from the latin word "februa", a ceremonial feast of purification held by the Romans.
March was originally the first month of the year in the Roman calendar. The Romans named the month after mars, the God of war. Later March became the third month.
No one really knows how April got its name. Some...think that it came from the Latin word "aperire" meaning "to open", referring to the opening of spring buds and flowers.
The month of May was probably named for Maia Majesta, the Roman godness of spring.
The ancient Romans named the first month of summer probably in honor of the Goddess Juno, patroness of women, marriage and the home.
Mark Anthony, the Roman general and orator, named July after Julius Caesar.
August was the sixth month of the early Roman calendar. It was called Sextilis, which means "sixth". The Roman emperor Augustus renamed the month August in honor of himself.
The ancient Romans named September after the Latin word meaning "seven". In the old Roman calendar, it was the seventh month of the year.
October received its name from the ancient Romans. "October" comes from a Latin word meaning "eight". It was the eighth month of the year in the old Roman calendar.
November was the ninth month of the ancient Romans' ten-month year, so its name came from "novem", the Latin word for nine.
December takes its name from "decem", the Latin word for "ten" because it was once the tenth month in the Ancient Roman calendar.
Available at: www.kidinfo.com/references/birthdays_trivia/months.htm.
Birthdays are celebrated more for children than for the adults, unless it is a milestone birthday such as 21, 30, 40 or 50.
At hte children´s parties they have balloons, streamers are hung up and lots of friends are invited to the party. There are always presents, cakes and ice cream. Sometimes the person having the birthday can choose what they want to do: bowling, swimming, arcades, amusement parks, camping trips and so on.
The majority of American children celebrate birthdays with a cake topped with lighted candles. Most families use the candles to represent how old a person is turning. When the cake is set before the guest of honor, he or she is supposed to make a wish, without telling anyone what it is. Then everyone sings the"Happy Birthday" song, and at the end of the song, the birthday person blows out the candles. If all the candles go out with one breath, it is believed that the wish will come true.
Singing "Happy Birthday to You" has been a long-standing tradition on birthdays. It was written by two American sisters in 1893, and it has been translated into several languages aound the world.
Adapted from: www.birthdaycelebrations.net/usabirthdays.htm
Birthdays celebrations around the world
Choose a country. Find out how people usually celebrate their birthdays:
- What do they eat?
- Do they sing any songs?
- Do they get special gifts?
Share your finds with your classmates.
You can find lots of useful information at www.birthdaycelebrations.net/traditions.htm,www.kidsparties.com,TraditionsInDifferentCountries.htm and http://library.thinkquest.org?10007/
1. São usadas palavras inglesas em nomes de produtos e empresas. Em que casos esse uso é necessário? E em que casos não? Por quê?
2. Cite exemplos de palavras em português escritas como se fosse em inglês? Por que, na sua opinião, foi feita essa mistura de línguas?
3. Usamos muitas palavras em inglês no Brasil. Você acha que isso pode ser um problema? Para quem e por quê?
Vamos buscar mais exemplos de estrangerismos e refletir sobre o seu uso?
- Procure exemplos do uso de palavras e/ou frases em inglês em jornais, revistas, cartazes, vitrines de loja, embalagens de produto etc.
- Anote os termos e onde são usados. Se puder, recorte os exemplos e/ou tire fotos.
- Reproduza e/ou cole seus exemplos em uma folha, indicando onde foram encontrados.
- Exponha seu trabalho. Explique e discuta seus exemplos com a classe.
quinta-feira, 24 de junho de 2010
Independence Day was first observed in Philadelphia on July 8, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was first publicly read. One of its most famous paragraphs says:
"We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness - That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving
their just Powers from the Consent of th Governed."
The Fourth of July is a summer holiday and a day off from work. That´s
why many people enjoy this holiday by going on picnics or to beaches. Independence Day is also celebrated with firework displays and parades. The American flag is flown and red, white, and blue ribbons are used for decoration at public ceremonies. Throughout the nation, church bells ring to celebrate the day when Philadelphia Liberty Bell first proclaimed American Independence.
segunda-feira, 14 de junho de 2010
2. Procurem fotos e os nomes em inglês de objetos que são usados na escola.
3. Façam desenhos ou colem fotos ou ilustrações desses objetos numa folha sulfite.
4. Escrevam os nomes deles embaixo da ilustrações, usando os artigos indefinidos - a/an.
5. Exponham os trabalhos em sala de aula.
1. Peça aos alunos que façam uma pesquisa sobre suas famílias junto a seus pais e parentes mais velhos. Inclua tios, primos, avós, bisavós etc. (nomes, idades, local e datas de nascimento).
2. Ajude-os a desenhar uma árvore genealógica utilizando as informações obtidas.
3. Solicite uma pesquisa sobre os nomes das relações familiares em inglês (father, mother, brother, sister, etc.). Inclua-os na árvore.
4. Exponha os trabalhos na sala de aula.
Como montar a árvore:
Nome das relações familiares em inglês:
Em agosto, iniciaremos novas turmas. Aguardo a participação de todos!!!
terça-feira, 25 de maio de 2010
Objetivos: Compreender diálogos em inglês.
Identificar e reproduzir o som de "m" como em I am.
Filme: The sound of music
Faça uma breve sinopse do filme para apresentá-lo aos alunos e convide-os a assistir ao trecho em que os filhos do capitão Von Trapp se apresentam à nova governanta da família (o início ocorre aos 29´50´´). Exiba as cenas sem legendas e com o aúdio em inglês. Questione a turma a respeito do que trata a situação exibida. Quais as expressões utilizadas pelos personagens para dizer o nome e a idade? Proponha que observem como são pronunciadas essas expressões e repitam os sons que ouvem. Cite outras palavras qur terminem com o som de "m", como ocorre em I am (plum, team, mom e arm) e peça para que identifiquem a regularidade nesse caso. Como deve ser o movimento da boca para produzir o som corretamente? É importante concluírem que é preciso juntar os lábios para produzir o som.
Organize os estudantes em grupos para que reproduzam as cenas vistas. Exiba o trecho novamente e permita que eles tomem notas, se necessário, para que encenem com segurança. Observe como pronunciam e entonam as frases que contenham palavras que terminem eem "m".
Dica: Vídeos de aulas sobre pronúncia em inglês. Digite na busca "pronúncia em inglês". www.ne.org.br
segunda-feira, 24 de maio de 2010
1. A: ---------------------------
B: In Florida.
a. Where do you live?
b. Who do you live with?
c. What do you do?
2. A: ---------------- after work?
B: To the gym.
a. Where does she
b. Where shw goes
c. Where does she go
3. A: Does Steve clean the house?
a. Yes, he is.
b. No, I do.
c. Yes, we do.
4. Who teaches your class?
a. A class of fifth graders.
b. A woman from Spain.
5. A: -----------------------
B: It cools the air.
a. What does an air conditioner do?
b. Who makes an air conditioner?
c. What is an air conditioner?
6. A: What does your brother look like?
a. He likes soccer.
b. He has dark hair.
c. He looks for his shoes.
7. A: Who owns that bicycle?
a. Ted is.
b. Ted does.
c. Ted has.
8. A: Does water freeze at 212º F?
B: No. It ------------ at 32 º F.
a. is freezing
1. ----------- you like ethnic food?
2. ---------- you go to jazz clubs?
3. ---------- you exercise?
4. ---------- you dislike violence on television?
5. --------- classical music relax you?
6. --------- you read many books?
7. --------- science interest you?
8. -------- your best friend live near you?
Then, practice these questions with a partner giving "short answers"
Lisa and Alan ---------- (work) in a bank. Lisa-------------(live) with her parents. Alan ----------- (share) an apartment with his brother. Lisa and Alan are good friends. They ----------- (drive) to work together in Alan´s car. Lisa --------- (have) a job in the bank´s loas department, and Alan ---------- (fix) the bank´s computers. They ------- (finish) work at 5 p.m. After work, Lisa ------------ (go) to the gym and ----------(exercise). Alan ----------- (drive) home alone. He and his brother --------- (watch) the six o´clock news. Then they ----------- (make) dinner.
I´m stand in front of your apartment. Unfortunately, you´re not at home, so I writing you this note. Dan and I are visiting our families. We´re live in San Diego now. Dan working for a telecommunications company, and I´m looking for a job. What you are doing these days? Are you still write for the newspaper? Call me at my mother´s house and please visit us!
domingo, 16 de maio de 2010
quarta-feira, 5 de maio de 2010
sexta-feira, 30 de abril de 2010
This article is about several worldwide days celebrating motherhood.
A homemade cake, one of many ways a family might celebrate Mother's Day, or Mothering Sunday.
The modern Mother's Day is celebrated on various days in many parts of the world, most commonly in May, though also in March, as a day to honor mothers and motherhood. In the United States it was nationally recognized as a holiday in 1914 after a campaign by Anna Jarvis. In some countries, it follows the old tradition.
Lamberts thought this day emerged from a custom of mother worship in ancient Greece, which kept a festival to Cybele, a great mother of Greek gods. This festival was held around the Vernal Equinox around Asia Minor and eventually in Rome itself from the Ides of March (15 March) to 18 March.
The ancient Romans also had another holiday, Matronalia, that was dedicated to Juno, though mothers were usually given gifts on this day.
In Europe there were several long standing traditions where a specific Sunday was set aside to honor motherhood and mothers such as Mothering Sunday. Mothering Sunday celebrations are part of the liturgical calendar in several Christian denominations, including Anglicans, and in the Catholic calendar is marked as Laetare Sunday, the fourth Sunday in Lent to honour the Virgin Mary and your "mother" church (the main church of the area). Historians think that children who served in houses were given a day off on that date so they could visit their families. The children would pick wild flowers along the way to place them on the church or to give them to their mother[
International Women's Day was celebrated for the first time in 28 February 1909, in the US By that time Anna Jarvis had already begun her national campaign in the US, so it wouldn't be an antecedent but a contemporanian. It is now celebrated in many countries on March 8.
The "Mother's Day Proclamation" by Julia Ward Howe was one of the early calls to celebrate Mother's Day in the United States. Written in 1870, Howe's Mother's Day Proclamation was a pacifist reaction to the carnage of the American Civil War and the Franco-Prussian War. The Proclamation was tied to Howe's feminist belief that women had a responsibility to shape their societies at the political level.
In 1912, Anna Jarvis trademarked the phrases "second Sunday in May" and "Mother's Day", and created the Mother's Day International Association.
"She was specific about the location of the apostrophe; it was to be a singular possessive, for each family to honour their mother, not a plural possessive commemorating all mothers in the world.This is also the spelling used by U.S. President Woodrow Wilson in the law making official the holiday in the U.S., by the U.S. Congress on bills, and by other U.S. presidents on their declarations.
Common usage in English language also dictates that the ostensibly singular possessive "Mother's Day" is the preferred spelling, although "Mothers' Day" (plural possessive) is not unheard of.
As the US holiday was adopted by other countries and cultures, the date was changed to fit already existing celebrations honouring motherhood, like Mothering Sunday in the UK or the Orthodox celebration of Jesus in the temple in Greece. In some countries it was changed to dates that were significant to the majority religion, like the Virgin Mary day in Catholic countries, or the birthday of the daughter of the Prophet Muhammad in Islamic countries. Other countries changed it to historical dates, like Bolivia using the date of a certain battle where women participated.
International history and traditions
In most countries, Mother's Day is a recent observance derived from the holiday as it has evolved in North America and Europe. When it was adopted by other countries and cultures, it was given different meanings, associated to different events (religious, historical or legendary), and celebrated in a different date or dates.
Some countries already had existing celebrations honoring motherhood, and their celebrations have adopted several external characteristics from the US holiday, like giving carnations and other presents to your own mother.
The extent of the celebrations varies greatly. In some countries, it is potentially offensive to one's mother not to mark Mother's Day. In others, it is a little-known festival celebrated mainly by immigrants, or covered by the media as a taste of foreign culture (compare the celebrations of Diwali in the UK and the United States).
In the Catholic Church, the holiday is strongly associated with reverencing the Virgin Mary
In Hindu tradition it is called "Mata Tirtha Aunshi" or "Mother Pilgrimage fortnight", and it is celebrated in countries with Hindu population, especially in Nepal. It is celebrated on the new moon day in the month of Baisakh i.e. April/May
In the United States today, telephones are an important part of people´s lives. But there are lot of choices to make before you can pick your own phone and say "Hello."
LOCAL CALLS: The first choice you have to make is about using a regular or cellular phone for your calls. Regular phone service from the local telephone company is cheaper - for a home phone it costs about $20 a month in most cities. With this service you can make all the local calls you want.
If you prefer to use a cellular phone for your local calls, you will pay more. This is because charges for cell phones are based on the amount of time the phone is used. You pay both to make and to get a call. With a cellular phone, the same $20 a month may only get 30 minutes of telephone service. After those 30 minutes you pay a charge for each extra minute. Of course, a cellular phone can be much more convenient, especially for someone like a doctor or a person who isn´t home much but needs to get important calls.
PERSONALIZED SERVICES: After you have thought about which kind of phone you want to use, you can choose the special services you want. There are many options, but one of the most popular ones is call waiting, where if someone calls you while you are talking on the phone, you can answer the new call while you are talking on the phone, you can answer the new call while the first person waits. There are other options too, and you pay a small extra monthly charge for each one you choose.
LONG DISTANCE: The last thing you need to think about is which long distance phone company you want to use. There are more than ten companies, including several large ones in the United States - Sprint, AT&T - and with each, you can choose different kinds of plans. Sometimes charges are the same all day long, and sometimes there are different charges for calls made at different times of the day. With some, the charges per minute go down the more long-distance calls you make.
Even after these choices, you may still have trouble using the phone. Like a friend told me: "We have call waiting at our house. When my husband and I want to make a call, we first have to wait for our 15-year-old daughter to get off the phone!"
...in some American cities, such as New York, the words street and avenue are used interchangeably, the only difference being that streets run in one direction and avenues cross them?
...in many American cities, the houses on the block between 1st and 2nd Streets are numbered from 101 up to 199; those on the block between 2nd and 3rd Streets are numbered 201 up to 299, and so on? This way, if you want to go to 1134E Monroe Street, you know that the house is located on the east part of Monroe Street, between 11th and 12th Streets.
...the principal streets of a city - those which carry the most traffic - are given such denominations as avenues, boulevards, turnpikes, highways, expressways, freeways and parkways?
...many highways, expressways, freeways and turnpikes have complete access control, that is, cars can only enter them at some specific places?
terça-feira, 27 de abril de 2010
segunda-feira, 19 de abril de 2010
Complete the paragraph with was or were:
Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) --------- a great Greek military leader. His birthplace --------- Pella, the ancient capital of Macedonia. Alexander´s parents --------- Philip II, king of Macedonia, and Olympias, a princess of Epirus. His teacher -------- the philosopher Aristotle. As a king and general, Alexander --------- very popular with his soldiers. They ------
very loyal to him. By 323 B.C., countries from Turkey to Afghanistan ------- under his control. At the time of his death, Alexander ------- only 33 years old.
The facts below are false. Correct each one by rewriting it as a negative statement. Then use the word or prhase in parentheses to write a true affirmative statement.
Example: The pharaohs were generals. (kings)
The pharaohs weren´t generals. They were kings.
1. Cleopatra was a Persian general. (Egyptian queen)
2. Columbus was a lawyer. (explorer)
3. Picasso and Rembrandt were astronomers. (artists)
4. William Shakespeare was a French writer. (English)
5. Cervantes was an American inventor. (Spanish writer)
6. Marie Curie and Albert Einstein were doctors. (scientists)
7. Beethoven was a German king. (composer)
domingo, 18 de abril de 2010
1. Complete the sentences with: You, He, She, It, We and They.
- Mrs. Harris is a teacher. --------- is a good teacher.
- Juan is in the car. -----------is in the blue car.
- Mr. and Mrs. Welch are Americans. ---------- from New York.
- The chair is new. ---------- not old.
- You and your friend are new students. -------- are in my class.
- Derek and I are students. ---------- are in college.
2. Complete the paragraph with am, is, or are.
My name ------- Mike Goodrich. I ------ the president of Compugames. It------ an Internet videogame company. Our employees --------- from all over the world. I ------- from Seattle. Celia Rivera-------- the vice president of Compugames. She ------ from Puerto Rico. Ruth McMaster and Carol Cheng ---------- two new employees. Ruth ------ from new York, and Carol --------- Taiwan. Diego and Dana ------ our new trainees from Brazil.
3. Complete the sentences. Use subject pronouns and be contractions.
- Mr. Walsh is our computer technician. -------- from Canada.
- Compugames is a company. --------- in Seattle.
- Mark and Pete are new employees. -------- game designers.
- Ana and I are students. -------- from Mexico.
- Some employees are in college. ------- busy.
- My name is Hiro. --------- from Japan.
- Carol is at work. -------- a sales manager.
- You and Donna are new employees. -------- in my department.
- Rocket Race is our new video game. -------- fun!
- Our offices are on Jackson Street. -------- big.
Source: Grammar Sense
Susan Kesner Bland
If you prefer, you can stick the parts of the song around the classroom; divide the class into two groups and while they listen to the song they have to search for the sentences and stick them in the appropriate order.
After you can ask one of the students to write the lyrics on the board, and then the whole class can sing and translate it. You can also work with the grammar topics you´ve taught in the previous week etc.
Remember those walls I built
Well, baby they´re tumbling down
And they didn´t even put up a fight
They didn´t even make a sound
I found a way to let you in
But I never really had a doubt
Standing in the light of your halo
I got my angel now
It´s like I´ve been awakened
Every rule I had you breakin´
It´s the risk I´m taking
I ain´t never gonna shut you out
Everywhere I´m looking now
I´m surrounde by your embrace
Baby I can see your halo
You know you´re my saving grace
You´re everything I need and more
It´s written all over your face
Baby I can feel your halo
Pray it won´t fade away
I can feel your halo,
I can see your halo,
Hit me like a ray of sun
Burning through my darkest night
You´re the only one that I want
I´m addicted to your light
I swore I´d never fall again
But this don´t even feel like falling
Gravity can forget
To pull me back to the ground again
In the sites below you can find lots of activities with songs:
How to make chocolate chip cookies
2 1/4 cups flour 1 teaspoon of vanilla
1 teaspoon of baking soda 1 egg
1 teaspoon of salt 2 cups of chocolate chips
1 cup of soft butter (or break a bar of chocolate into
3/4 cup of sugar pieces)
3/4 cup of brown sugar
Turn on the oven to 375° Fahrenheit
Mix the sugars, butter and egg.
Add the flour, baking soda and salt, then mix.
Add the chocolate chips, then mix.
Put teaspoons of dough
onto a pan, 2 inches apart
Bake 8-10 minutes or until cookies are light brown.
Cookies will be a little soft.
Wait for a few minutes, then take them off of pan.
Now eat and enjoy them!
segunda-feira, 12 de abril de 2010
You´ve got it made.
You´re really working hard today.
You are really good at that.
That´s coming along nicely.
I´m happy to see you working like that.
That´s much, much better!
I´m proud of the way you worked today.
You´re doing that much better today.
You´ve just about got it.
That´s the best you´ve ever done.
You´re doing a good job.
Now you´ve figured it out.
That´s quite an improvement.
I knew you could do it.
Keep working on it.
Now you have it!
You are learning fast.
Good for you!
Couldn´t have done it better myself.
Aren´t you proud of yourself?
One more time and you´ll have it.
You really make my job fun.
That´s the right way to do it.
You´re getting better every day.
You did it that time!
That´s not half bad.
You haven´t missed a thing!
That´s the way!
Keep up the good work.
That´s the best ever.
You´ve just about mastered it.
That´s better than ever.
You must have been practicing.
You did that very well.
You´re really going to town.
That´s how to handle that.
Now that´s what I call a fine job.
You´re really improving.
You´re doing beautifully!
You´ve got that down pat.
You certainly did well today.
Keep it up.
Congratulations. You got it right.
You did a lot of work today.
Well look at you go.
I´m very proud of you.
I like that.
Way to go.
Now you have the hang of it.
You´re doing fine.
You´re really learning a lot.
I´ve never seen anyone do it better.
Keep on trying.